Wednesday, April 25, 2007

Answering a Shverrer Rashi - Devarim 23:19

Rashi on esnan zonah and mechir kelev seems to pasken like Beis Shammai, that shinui b'mekomo omed (Ramban's question al asar). This is what we said today in shiur to be meyashev Rashi. A bit cheshbon'dik:

מחלקת בית הלל ובית שמאי בענין שינוי לגבי אתנן ורש"י על התורה על זה

The גמרא brings down a מחלקת about the pay given to a זונה, which is אסור to bring as a קרבן. One opinion says that if one gave wheat and then it was made into flour it is מותר to bring as a קרבן. The other opinion argues and says it is אסור. The גוריון דמאספורק (a תנא) says that בית הלל says it is מותר and בית שמאי says it is אסור. ר' אילעא says that it is בית שמאי who is the author of the ברייתא which says that if one stole a טלה and it became an איל one pays כפל and דו"ה as worth at the time he stole it.

תוס' says that ר' אילעא here does not hold like רבא who (on דף צד.) says that בית שמאי agrees that שינוי is קונה in a regular case, but here because אתנן is disgusting, a שינוי does not help. If ר' אילעא would agree with רבא, he wouldn't be able to say that he authored the ברייתא. (רש"י also hints to this idea in ד"ה "שינוי במקומו עומד" when he wrote "לא נפיק מרשות הבעלים".)

רש"י על התורה on דברים כ"ג:י"ט, says "גם שניהם - לרבות שנוייהם כגון חטים ועשאן סלת". This is the דרשה behind בית שמאי. Why does רש"י brings down the סברה of בית שמאי?
Perhaps the answer lies on דף צד. There, אביי says that there is a large set of תנאים who think בית שמאי and בית הלל agree in this matter. The מהודרא בתרא חדושי מהרש"א says that this means that they do not hold of the גוריון דמאספורק. רש"י על התורה is relying on this idea – that he is not really holding like בית שמאי, just an unnamed מאן דאמר. He would also hold like רבא who says that in most cases שינוי is קונה, and אתנן is an exception.
(However, רש"י and תוס' on our סוגיא do not say this idea of אביי because clearly ר' אילעא holds like the גוריון דמאספורק and clearly he does not hold of רבא).

Sunday, April 22, 2007

48 Ways: 48 Praises

To me this seems like a positive development. Many years ago, one brilliant, popular Rosh Yeshiva I respect very much - who worked as an employee of the yeshiva in which he gave his shiur - when I noted to him that it would be nice to thank so-and-so yungerman, said to me (bitterly): "Nobody ever thanked me, why should I thank anyone else?"

From Friday's WSJ:
The Most-Praised Generation Goes to Work

Uber-stroked kids are reaching adulthood -- and now their bosses (and spouses) have to deal with them. Jeffrey Zaslow on 'applause notes,' celebrations assistants and ego-lifting dinnerware.
By JEFFREY ZASLOWApril 20, 2007; Page W1...

...Childhood in recent decades has been defined by such stroking -- by parents who see their job as building self-esteem, by soccer coaches who give every player a trophy, by schools that used to name one "student of the month" and these days name 40...

Now, as this greatest generation grows up, the culture of praise is reaching deeply into the adult world. Bosses, professors and mates are feeling the need to lavish praise on young adults, particularly twentysomethings, or else see them wither under an unfamiliar compliment deficit.
Employers are dishing out kudos to workers for little more than showing up. Corporations including Lands' End and Bank of America are hiring consultants to teach managers how to compliment employees using email, prize packages and public displays of appreciation. The 1,000-employee Scooter Store Inc., a power-wheelchair and scooter firm in New Braunfels, Texas, has a staff "celebrations assistant" whose job it is to throw confetti -- 25 pounds a week -- at employees. She also passes out 100 to 500 celebratory helium balloons a week. The Container Store Inc. estimates that one of its 4,000 employees receives praise every 20 seconds, through such efforts as its "Celebration Voice Mailboxes."...

Praise Inflation

Employers say the praise culture can help them with job retention, and marriage counselors say couples often benefit by keeping praise a constant part of their interactions. But in the process, people's positive traits can be exaggerated until the words feel meaningless. "There's a runaway inflation of everyday speech," warns Linda Sapadin, a psychologist in Valley Stream, N.Y. These days, she says, it's an insult unless you describe a pretty girl as "drop-dead gorgeous" or a smart person as "a genius." "And no one wants to be told they live in a nice house," says Dr. Sapadin. "'Nice' was once sufficient. That was a good word. Now it's a put-down."...

The Gottman Institute, a relationship-research and training firm in Seattle, tells clients that a key to marital happiness is if couples make at least five times as many positive statements to and about each other as negative ones. Meanwhile, products are being marketed to help families make praise a part of their daily routines. For $32.95, families can buy the "You Are Special Today Red Plate," and then select one worthy person each meal to eat off the dish.

But many young married people today, who grew up being told regularly that they were special, can end up distrusting compliments from their spouses. Judy Neary, a relationship therapist in Alexandria, Va., says it's common for her clients to say things like: "I tell her she's beautiful all the time, and she doesn't believe it." Ms. Neary suspects: "There's a lot of insecurity, with people wondering, 'Is it really true?'"

"Young married people who've been very praised in their childhoods, particularly, need praise to both their child side and their adult side," adds Dolores Walker, a psychotherapist and attorney specializing in divorce mediation in New York...

Bob Nelson, billed as "the Guru of Thank You," counsels 80 to 100 companies a year on praise issues. He has done presentations for managers of companies such as Walt Disney Co. and Hallmark Cards Inc., explaining how different generations have different expectations. As he sees it, those over age 60 tend to like formal awards, presented publicly. But they're more laid back about needing praise, and more apt to say: "Yes, I get recognition every week. It's called a paycheck." Baby boomers, Mr. Nelson finds, often prefer being praised with more self-indulgent treats such as free massages for women and high-tech gadgets for men.

Workers under 40, he says, require far more stroking. They often like "trendy, name-brand merchandise" as rewards, but they also want near-constant feedback. "It's not enough to give praise only when they're exceptional, because for years they've been getting praise just for showing up," he says.

Mr. Nelson advises bosses: If a young worker has been chronically late for work and then starts arriving on time, commend him. "You need to recognize improvement. That might seem silly to older generations, but today, you have to do these things to get the performances you want," he says. Casey Priest, marketing vice president for Container Store, agrees. "When you set an expectation and an employee starts to meet it, absolutely praise them for it," she says.
Sixty-year-old David Foster, a partner at Washington, D.C., law firm Miller & Chevalier, is making greater efforts to compliment young associates -- to tell them they're talented, hard-working and valued. It's not a natural impulse for him. When he was a young lawyer, he says, "If you weren't getting yelled at, you felt like that was praise."

But at a retreat a couple of years ago, the firm's 120 lawyers reached an understanding. Younger associates complained that they were frustrated; after working hard on a brief and handing it in, they'd receive no praise. The partners promised to improve "intergenerational communication." Mr. Foster says he feels for younger associates, given their upbringings. "When they're not getting feedback, it makes them very nervous."...

In fact, throughout history, younger generations have wanted praise from their elders. As Napoleon said: "A soldier will fight long and hard for a bit of colored ribbon." But when it comes to praise today, "Gen Xers and Gen Yers don't just say they want it. They are also saying they require it," says Chip Toth, an executive coach based in Denver. How do young workers say they're not getting enough? "They leave," says Mr. Toth.

Many companies are proud of their creative praise programs. Since 2004, the 4,100-employee Bronson Healthcare Group in Kalamazoo, Mich., has required all of its managers to write at least 48 thank-you or praise notes to underlings every year.

Universal Studios Orlando, with 13,000 employees, has a program in which managers give out "Applause Notes," praising employees for work well done. Universal workers can also give each other peer-to-peer "S.A.Y. It!" cards, which stand for "Someone Appreciates You!" The notes are redeemed for free movie tickets or other gifts...

Young adults aren't always eager for clear-eyed feedback after getting mostly "atta-boys" and "atta-girls" all their lives, says John Sloop, a professor of rhetorical and cultural studies at Vanderbilt University. Another issue: To win tenure, professors often need to receive positive evaluations from students. So if professors want students to like them, "to a large extent, critical comments [of students] have to be couched in praise," Prof. Sloop says. He has attended seminars designed to help professors learn techniques of supportive criticism. "We were told to throw away our red pens so we don't intimidate students."

At the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, marketing consultant Steve Smolinsky teaches students in their late 20s who've left the corporate world to get M.B.A. degrees. He and his colleagues feel handcuffed by the language of self-esteem, he says. "You have to tell students, 'It's not as good as you can do. You're really smart, and can do better.'"

Mr. Smolinsky enjoys giving praise when it's warranted, he says, "but there needs to be a flip side. When people are lousy, they need to be told that." He notices that his students often disregard his harsher comments. "They'll say, 'Yeah, well...' I don't believe they really hear it."
In the end, ego-stroking may feel good, but it doesn't lead to happiness, says Prof. Twenge, the narcissism researcher, who has written a book titled "Generation Me: Why Today's Young Americans Are More Confident, Assertive, Entitled -- and More Miserable than Ever Before." She would like to declare a moratorium on "meaningless, baseless praise," which often starts in nursery school. She is unimpressed with self-esteem preschool ditties, such as the one set to the tune of "Frère Jacques": "I am special/ I am special/ Look at me..."...

Nachum Ish Gamzu

In Chagigah we find:

תלמוד בבלי מסכת חגיגה דף יב/א שאל רבי ישמעאל את רבי עקיבא כשהיו מהלכין בדרך אמר ליה אתה ששימשת את נחום איש גם זו עשרים ושתים שנה שהיה דורש כל אתין שבתורה את השמים ואת הארץ מה היה דורש בהן אמר ליה אילו נאמר שמים וארץ הייתי אומר שמים שמו של הקדוש ברוך הוא עכשיו שנאמר את השמים ואת הארץ שמים שמים ממש ארץ ארץ ממש

sounds like there is room to say that there is an essential link between darshening "es" and being NIGZ.

Dvar Hashem Me'Yerushalmi: Mechiras Chametz

It seems from today's (Shabbos's, to be exact) Daf Yomi Yerushalmi that Mechiras Chametz is a b'feirush a Y-mi:

תלמוד ירושלמי מסכת פסחים דף יג/א
ישראל ועכו"ם שהיו באין בספינה וחמץ ביד ישראל הרי זה מוכר לעכו"ם או נותנו לו מתנה וחוזר ולוקחו ממנו לאחר הפסח ובלבד שיתנו לו מתנה גמורה. אומ' הוא ישראל לעכו"ם עד שאת לוקח במנה בוא וקח לך במאתים עד שאת לוקח לך מעכו"ם בוא וקח לך מישראל שמא אצטריך ואקח ממך אחר הפסח.

Friday, April 20, 2007

Yerushalayim Video
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Letter to the editor: Mishpacha Magazine


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