Friday, April 18, 2008

A Legitimate Complaint and My Lame Response

Anonymous said...

This blog is practically dead- there has been like only 1 post for month, and even then, it hasnt been any real posts. In 2005, this blog used to be great, but now its gone. what happened?

Wednesday, April 16, 2008 5:27:00 PM

Blogger YGB said...

Having three jobs (one f/t, two p/t), a daughter in shidduchim, and B"H other children to be megadel, gets to you after a while... :-(

I have done some "indirect" Pesach writing, by "piggybacking" my comments onto Harry Maryles's Pesach Divrei Torah from RYBS, see:


Friday, April 18, 2008 9:19:00 AM

Friday, April 11, 2008

Tenai in Shema and Sefirah: From my MTA Shiur this past week

Tenai in Kerias Shema and Sefiras HaOmer

  1. Machzor Vitri, Pesach #104 and Avudraham, Tefillos Pesach, both cite Rashi's practice, to count either me'b'od yom or bein hashemashos with the tzibbur without a berachah, and to count again at night with a berachah.

  2. The question is: How does a tenai work, if this is a milsa d'leisa b'shelichus? [The Oneg Yom Tov #3 states that therefore the tenai is ineffective, because kavanah of mitzvos is not the same as the ratzon for other transactions – RSZA (Minchas Shlomo 1:80) disagrees.]

  3. Moreover, why is this not an issue of breirah?

  4. The Gra (Orach Chaim 489:3) explains that the tenai works as follows: His count during bein hashemashos was sufficient b'di'eved because safek d'Rabbanan l'kula; yet he counted later again because he held that a berachah is me'akeiv sufficiently to count again with a berachah.

  5. Moadim U'Zemanim (7:230) explains that one can make a berachah on a mitzvah kiyumis even if he has already fulfilled the mitzvah chiyuvis.

  6. RSZA (Halichos Shlomo 16:16:90) ruled that the tenai may also be made from a time shortly after Tzeis HaKochavim, to a time later after Tzeis HaKochavim.

  7. Many Poskim maintain one cannot be yotzei Sefiras HaOmer through Shomei'a K'Oneh. Why is it different than other mitzvos of dibbur, or shofar (see Mishmeres Chaim)?

  8. RSZA (Shalmei Moed chap. 84) suggests that Shomei'a K'Oneh can be effective for a dibbur or keriah, but not for sefirah.

  9. A similar tenai is suggested by R' Akiva Eiger (Orach Chaim, end of #46): If one is afraid that the tzibbur will only get to Shema after the zman, he can say the first pasuk and Boruch Shem with a tenai that if he will not reach the main Shema on time, this will be his fulfillment of the mitzvah.

  10. According to the Birchas Shmuel in the name of R' Chaim, a tenai is extrinsic to the ma'aseh; according to the Maitcheter it is intrinsic. I am no longer sure we need to introduce this issue, but it is worthwhile to review the Maitcheter's taxonomy of tena'im:

a) If a (tenai is fulfilled), then x (the original ma'aseh) will be sustained; if not-a (tenai is not fulfilled, then y (an alternative outcome). This tenai requires the use of tenai kaful and other Mishpatei Ha'Tenai'im.

b) If a, then x; if not-a, then not-x. This tenai is one of mei'achshav (since there is no alternative outcome) or al menas, and does not require the use of tenai kaful and other Mishpatei Ha'Tenai'im.

  1. Bereirah, on the other hand, explains the Maitcheter, is: If a, then x (the original ma'aseh has one definition); if b, then y (the original ma'aseh has a different definition). Example: The wife for whom a get was written will be determined by who comes out of the door first.

  2. The cases of Sefirah and Shema are of the nature of: If a (the later kiyum takes place effectively), then x (the original kiyum is nullified); if not-a (the later kiyum does not take place effectively), then y (the original kiyum is sustained). This is the same kind of tenai as 10a. It is not bereirah. Normally, such a tenai requires tenai kaful and other Mishpatei Ha'Tenai'im. However, as the Tzitz Eliezer (and others) point out, that is only in a tenai bein adam l'chaveiro where proper verbalization is necessary to establish the parameters of a transaction. Such is not required bein adam l'atzmo.

  3. The sugya of tenai and shelichus is in Kesuvos (74a):

אמר ליה בר בי רב שפיר קא אמרת מכדי כל תנאי מהיכא גמרינן מתנאי בני גד ובני ראובן תנאה דאפשר לקיומיה ע"י שליח כי התם הוי תנאיה תנאה דלא אפשר לקיומיה ע"י שליח כי התם לא הוי תנאה.

תוספות מסכת כתובות דף עד עמוד א: וא"ת ומה סברא יש כאן דלא גמרינן מהתם אלא לענין מה שהוא סברא דהא לא ילפינן מהתם דלא מהני תנאי אלא בנתינת קרקע וי"ל דהיינו טעמא דהואיל והמעשה כל כך בידו שיכול לקיימו ע"י שליח סברא הוא שיהא כמו כן בידו לשוויי ביה תנאה אבל חליצה שאין בידו לקיימה ע"י שליח לא הוי בידו נמי למירמי ביה תנאה ואפילו לא יתקיים התנאי יהיה המעשה קיים ומשום הך סברא מודו כ"ע דבעינן שאפשר לקיימו ע"י שליח דומיא דבני גד ובני ראובן.

בית הבחירה למאירי מסכת כתובות דף עד עמוד א: שכל תנאי אחד מתנאיו הוא שיהא אפשר לקיימו על ידי שליח ר"ל שיהא המעשה שהתנאי בא בשבילו איפשר לקיימו על ידי שליח כגון תנאי בני גד ובני ראובן שאיפשר שיחזיקו באותם הארצות על ידי שליח שכל כיוצא בזה המעשה חלוש והתנאי מבטלו אבל החליצה אי אפשר לעשותה על ידי שליח ואין תנאי מבטלו.

חידושי הריטב"א מסכת כתובות דף עד עמוד א: גמרינן מינה דסברא הוא דכיון דמעשה אלים כולי האי דליתיה על ידי שליח דלא חייל ביה תנאי.

  1. The Harerei Kedem explains Rashi's minhag concerning Sefiras HaOmer with a tzvei dinim in Sefirah: Maintaining the count of Temimos and performing the mitzvah of U'Sefartem Lachem.

  2. The Rogatchover maintains that there is a tzvei dinim in regard to Shema: Kabbolas Ol Malchus Shomayim, that cannot be accomplished via Shomei'a K'Oneh, and a Din Keriah that can be accomplished via Shomei'a K'Oneh.

  3. RSZA suggests something similar in regard to Sefirah: While the mitzvah of Sefirah is theoretically subject to Shomei'a K'Oneh, the maintenance of the count is not subject to it.

  4. We may now posit as follows: While in both cases the earlier ma'aseh – whether of the mitzvah of Kabbolas Ol Malchus Shomayim or of the count to retain Temimos – is not subject to shelichus, the latter ma'aseh mitzvah is subject to shelichus via Shomei'a K'Oneh. As the requirement of shelichus is in order to indicate control over the ma'aseh or its ratzon, the fact that shelichus can be made relevant suffices to fulfill the requirement of isa b'shelichus and the tenai can be effective.

  5. This is only possible because the earlier ma'aseh was not a complete ma'aseh mitzvah, and therefore is not even a bona fide b'di'eved. However, were the earlier ma'aseh a complete ma'aseh mitzvah, then the Oneg Yom Tov would be correct: The kavanah (if we hold mitzvos tzerichos kavanah) was present and the ma'aseh performed properly. Under such circumstance, if anything, the later kiyum might be construed as Bal Tosif!